There is a basic format that all companies follow when labeling their food and beverages. Here is a rough outline:
See also: What’s on the Nutrition Label?
Remember that nutrition fact RDIs, or the recommended amount of nutrients one needs in a day, are always made for the intended age group unless otherwise specified. Nutrition labels assume the consumer is older than 4 years and is not pregnant / breastfeeding. Those people have immensely different needs.
For items packed in liquids that aren’t meant to be drunk, like pickles, pears, and olives, the nutrition is for the solids.
It is not required of companies to give the “not required” nutritional information unless they make a health claim. That applies to restaurants too, for whom no nutritional information is needed to be given.
So if McDonald’s says their burger is high in B Vitamins, they are required to provide a way for the consumer to discover exactly how much sodium is in their soup, but nothing else. Luckily, nowadays most large chains will voluntarily give info on their websites, and some even on their menus.
See also: How are Nutrients and Calories Rounded?
If you can’t find a substance you are looking for, there is probably none / next to none of it is found in the product. Look at the end / bottom of the label for a statement like the following:
Thanks for reading!
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21, Chapter I, Subchapter B, Part 101, February, 2016. http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=0811a061720528cac7d88e839b14cb5c&pitd=20160216&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title21/21cfr101_main_02.tpl. Accessed October 14, 2016.